25 race riots take place in the "Red Summer" of 1919.
On August 1, Marcus Garvey's Universal Improvement Association held its national convention in Harlem, the traditionally black neighborhood in New York City. Garvey's African nationalist movement was the first black American mass movement, and at its height it claimed hundreds of thousands of supporters.
On May 19, in Omaha, Nebraska, civil rights leader Malcolm X was born.
On August 2, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was organized. A. Philip Randolph was chosen president.
Assistant Librarian of Congress and African-American historian Daniel A. P. Murray died in Washington, DC, on March 31.