1877-1883 - WFXG FOX 54 - News Now

1877-1883

1877
The end of Reconstruction. A deal with Southern Democratic leaders made Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) president, in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from the South and the end of federal efforts to protect the civil rights of African-Americans.

On June 15, Henry O. Flipper became the first black American to graduate from West Point.

1879-1881
About 55,000 blacks move to Kansas and other western states in the Exodus Movement.

1881
Tuskegee Institute founded. Tuskegee became the leading vocational training institution for African-Americans.

Segregation of public transportation. Tennessee segregated railroad cars, followed by Florida (1887), Mississippi (1888), Texas (1889), Louisiana (1890), Alabama, Kentucky, Arkansas, and Georgia (1891), South Carolina (1898), North Carolina (1899), Virginia (1900), Maryland (1904), and Oklahoma (1907).Booker T. Washington opens the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. These were the first "Jim Crow" laws.

1883
On October 15, the Supreme Court declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional. The Court declared that the Fourteenth Amendment forbids states, but not citizens, from discriminating.

Sojourner Truth, a courageous and ardent abolitionist and a brilliant speaker, died on November 26.

On November 3, white conservatives in Danville, Virginia, seized control of the local government, racially integrated and popularly elected, killing four African-Americans in the process.

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